Anal fissures also called fissure in ano are a common affliction— second only to hemorrhoids in terms of patient complaints about the anus. However, researchers have been unable to estimate the true incidence of anal fissures. Anal fissures occur only rarely in patients older than 65 years. Anal fissures start as acute tears: they can be superficial like a paper cut or so deep they split the dermis down to the underlying sphincter muscle.
Anal fissure | Treatment summary | BNF content published by NICE
To treat anal fissure, internal anal sphincterotomy may be associated with surgical risks and incidence of incontinence. Botulinum toxin injection into the anal sphincter is invasive and expensive. Headache and hypotension hindered topical treatment with glyceryl trinitrate. Greater patient compliance, potentiated efficacy, reduced side effects, and lower cost are the major advantages offered by the combination therapy. Therefore, combination topical gels of nifedipine NIF , lidocaine hydrochloride LDH and betamethasone valerate BMV were prepared and evaluated regarding viscosity, pH, drug content, and in vitro release. Compatibility study of drug—drug and drug-excipient mixtures preceded the formulation. Stability study was performed.
You are viewing BNF. An anal fissure is a tear or ulcer in the lining of the anal canal, immediately within the anal margin. Clinical features of anal fissure include bleeding and persistent pain on defecation, and a linear split in the anal mucosa.
An anal fissure is a tear in the opening of the anus that can cause pain, itching, and bleeding. Anal fissures are common in infants but less so in older children. They occur in adults of all ages. The pain, which can be quite severe, usually occurs during and after a bowel movement. The most common cause of anal fissures is constipation, but diarrhea can be a cause as well.